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By August , there were 10, Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the formidable There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank [ citation needed ] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made.

Its success was due to its versatility: As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.

Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion gemischte Flak-Abteilung.

The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8. For the Battle of France in , the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed flak battalions.

In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed tanks and bunkers. During the North African campaign , Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers.

A mere two flak battalions destroyed British tanks in Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia , Rommel camouflaged many 8.

The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs.

Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.

On 14 September , Flak-Abt. In , the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the castles along the Yangtze River.

In - Finland bought 90 8. These cannons played an important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until and after that as coastal guns until the early s.

Several of the Finnish guns survive in museums and as memorials. At the end of the war the Spanish Army was using all of the Flak 18 guns sent, some 52 units.

Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. The scarcity of artillery among the Nationalist forces and the general low proficiency of the Spanish gun crews forced the usage of the Flak 18 gun in a variety of roles, including as an artillery piece and as an anti-tank gun.

Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. Following the Spanish Civil war, more Flak.

The Flak 36 guns were briefly issued in late to the American Seventh Army as captured weapons. The 79th Field Artillery Battalion Provisional was formed from personnel of the 79th and th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage.

As of December 31, , the th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10, rounds through captured German weapons.

Only a few were built in mid, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful. Greece had at least 24 guns 8. Later these guns were used against the invading German forces in April As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.

Some flak batteries used guns worn out from firing beyond their operational lives, which typically limited their effective ceiling to 7, meters. In comparison, the British 3.

The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out.

The KwK 36 abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36 was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics.

It was the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.

Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8. The PaK 43 an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43 [26] [27] used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit.

It was also provided with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the crew. In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn , and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers.

Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum , Munster, Germany. Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä , Finland.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. The spoken version was Acht-komma-acht Zentimeter.

Jane's pocket book of towed artillery. War Department, June 29, Lone Sentry ". Retrieved 23 December Die deutsche Sprache als Spiegel deutscher Kultur.

Oberkommando des Heeres, Archived from the original on 20 July German Anti-aircraft Defenses University Press of Kansas. Retrieved on 08 Oct Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War.

Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 18 April Panzer Commander , Dell Books. Retrieved February 4, Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses Bolaget överklagade och yrkade att kammarrätten med ändring av länsrättens dom skulle undanröja besluten om ytterligare arbetsgivaravgifter och avgiftstillägg.

Av dessa har visserligen varit tillfälligt anställda och avlönade per timme, men detta innebär enligt verkets mening inte att de faller utanför personalbegreppet.

Enligt Svenska Akademiens ordlista har ordet personal betydelsen "de anställda vid ett företag m. Skälen för Regeringsrättens avgörande.

Detta innebär enligt utredningen att erbjudandet inte behöver rikta sig till korttidsanställda, uppdragstagare m.

Skäl för eftergift av tillägget i här aktuellt hänseende föreligger därför. Begreppet "hela personalen" har inte närmare kommenterats i motiven till den nu aktuella bestämmelsen.

KL infördes regler om skattefrihet för datorutrustning. Vi anser därför att kammarrättens domslut skall fastställas. Skattemyndigheten fann vid omprövning inte skäl att ändra beslutet.

Kammarrätten i Göteborg Bolaget överklagade och yrkade att kammarrätten med ändring av länsrättens dom skulle undanröja besluten om ytterligare arbetsgivaravgifter och avgiftstillägg.

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This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. In addition to these Krupp designs, Rheinmetall later created a more powerful anti-aircraft gun, the 8.

Krupp responded with another prototype of the long-barreled 8. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium- caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles.

By , the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period.

It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8. After losing the war, Germany had been forbidden under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types.

Nevertheless, the Krupp company started the development of a new gun in partnership with Bofors of Sweden. Prototype 88s were first produced in The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage.

A simple-to-operate "semi-automatic" loading system ejected fired shells, allowing it to be reloaded by simply inserting a new shell into a tray.

The gun would then fire and recoil; during the return stroke, the empty case would be thrown backward by levers, a cam would then engage and recock the gun.

This resulted in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the era. Widespread production started with the Nazi rise to power in , and the Flak 18 was available in small numbers when Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil War.

It quickly proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. This experience also demonstrated a number of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities.

Many of these improvements were incorporated into the Flak 36 , which had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement of worn liners. The new, heavier, carriage allowed it to fire in an emergency when still on its wheels and without its outriggers , but with a very limited traverse and elevation.

Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. These shields could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s as well.

The weight of the gun meant that only large vehicles could move it, the SdKfz 7 half-track became a common prime mover. Targeting indicators were attached from the central controller to each of the four guns of a battery, allowing for coordinated fire.

Indeed, with the automatic loading system, the gun layers' job was to keep the gun barrel trained on the target area based on the signals from the controller.

The loaders would keep the weapon fed with live ammunition which would fire immediately upon insertion—all while the gun layer aimed the weapon according to the data.

The later model was the Flak 37 , which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily.

In some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation.

In fact all 8. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example.

As early as the Luftwaffe asked for newer weapons with an even better performance, to address the problems of defending against attack by high-flying aircraft.

A prototype was ready in early [11] leading to the designation 8. The new gun fired a 9. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers.

Because of problems in service, the guns were almost exclusively used in Germany where they could be properly maintained and serviced.

The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction.

Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, in all.

The first deliveries were made in March [11] and, as of August , only were fielded; with in January Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis.

During tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened.

Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake.

After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired, The resulting piece was 74 calibers long or 88 with the muzzle brake included.

Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed.

Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time.

A further attempt was made to use a Flak 41 barrel on an existing mount from the However, production did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available.

The Allies had nothing as good". Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front; and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence.

After , the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. Of the latter, a small number were The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft.

By August , there were 10, Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the formidable There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank [ citation needed ] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made.

Its success was due to its versatility: As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.

Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion gemischte Flak-Abteilung.

The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8. For the Battle of France in , the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed flak battalions.

In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed tanks and bunkers. During the North African campaign , Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers.

A mere two flak battalions destroyed British tanks in Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia , Rommel camouflaged many 8.

The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs.

Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.

On 14 September , Flak-Abt. In , the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the castles along the Yangtze River.

In - Finland bought 90 8. Bolaget överklagade beslutet och yrkade bl. Bidrag som avses i 11 kap. Det totala antalet fast anställda som erbjudandet riktats till har under perioden varit ca 40 st.

Resterande antal är av bolaget tillfälligt inhyrd eller timavlönad personal. Skäl för eftergift av avgiftstillägget har inte framkommit. Bolaget överklagade och yrkade att kammarrätten med ändring av länsrättens dom skulle undanröja besluten om ytterligare arbetsgivaravgifter och avgiftstillägg.

Av dessa har visserligen varit tillfälligt anställda och avlönade per timme, men detta innebär enligt verkets mening inte att de faller utanför personalbegreppet.

Enligt Svenska Akademiens ordlista har ordet personal betydelsen "de anställda vid ett företag m. Skälen för Regeringsrättens avgörande.

Detta innebär enligt utredningen att erbjudandet inte behöver rikta sig till korttidsanställda, uppdragstagare m.

Skäl för eftergift av tillägget i här aktuellt hänseende föreligger därför.

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